Nature Based Solutions, the first part of the handbook, proposing specific elements of nature-friendly solutions for adaptive vulnerability of cities. For each type of solution is given a description and role of the element within the ecological system of the city, construction and technical parameters of the solution, conditions of implementation, risks and benefits, named in the system of nomenclature of selected adaptation indicators.

In the context of fulfilling the Strategy of Adaptation of the Capital The City of Prague on Climate Change Prague also cooperates on international projects. The “Urban NatureLab” project, abbreviated to UNaLab, funded by the European Horizon 2020 program, helps OCP MHMP and IPR Prague staff, with the support of staff from the most prestigious foreign research institutions and cities, develop, assess and evaluate the impacts of individual planned adaptation projects on climate change. The aim of the project is to face the climate challenges associated with the high rate of urbanization and to implement solutions in cities using green and blue infrastructure.

Under the auspices of UNaLab, the first version of the technical handbook was published – a catalog of so-called “nature based solutions”. The handbook provides detailed information on a range of potentially useful solutions to support the urban microclimate and reduce vulnerability; is a living document for the duration of the project and its final version will be published for wide use after the end of the UNaLab project.

Each of the three leading cities of the UNaLab project – Eindhoven (NL), Genoa (IT) and Tampere (FI) declared a strong commitment to sustainable urban development. The establishment of innovative spaces, the so-called Urban LivingLabs in the mentioned cities, helps to co-create, experiment and retrospectively evaluate a number of different NBSs, and to support the building of knowledge and capacity in the use of the NBS. The individual solutions were thus developed in a participatory way together with local stakeholders and citizens, thus contributing to the development of more sustainable urban communities.

Within a wider network of partner cities (Stavanger (N), Prague (CZ), Castellón (ES), Cannes (FR), Başakşehir (TR), Hong Kong and Buenos Aires (BR), the production and sharing of knowledge on adaptation solutions allows to reflect the diverse socio-economic reality of these cities, together with differences in the size and density of urban populations, the characteristics of local ecosystems and climatic conditions.

The NBS concept dates back to 2008; the European program for research and innovation of nature-friendly solutions defines them as “solutions inspired and supported by nature that are cost-effective while providing environmental, social and economic benefits and helping to build resilience. Such solutions bring more and more diverse natural and natural elements and processes to cities, landscapes and marine areas through locally adapted, efficient and systemic interventions. Thus, the NBS actually provides the benefits of biodiversity and supports the provision of ecosystem services.