To deliver the vison of enhancing the resistance and reducing vulnerability to negative climate change effects, particularly those of high temperatures, urban heat island and heat waves and insufficient rainfall water infiltration it is reasonable to apply nature-based solutions1, using ecosystem services provided by blue and green Infrastructures.
The green infrastructure, consisting of all greenery types in the landscape, cools naturally its neighbourhood by providing shade and evapotranspiration. The cooling effect is the highest in woody plants, particularly in full-grown trees, if there is a sufficient underground water source. For evapotranspiration by vegetation, water availability is necessary: thus, favourable conditions for vegetation elements trough providing water availability in soil layers should be improved by the blue infrastructure.
For stabilizing the hydrological cycle, it is reasonable to support water infiltration and retention at the site where they have reached the ground by introducing water permeable and semi-permeable patches and establishing sites allocated for rainfall/storm water retention and accumulation, i.e. polders, water reservoirs, artificial wetlands and other Blue Infrastructure components. Reducing solar radiation accumulation in urban environment can also be reached by using reflective materials and colour, if appropriate.
Ecosystem services provided by the green infrastructure include other benefits, such as air quality improvement, improvement in human health, providing space for recreation/leisure and sports, etc. If ecosystem services cannot be used or are ineffective for mitigating the particular climate change effect, it is necessary to apply technological or grey solutions. Other proposed soft measures help to enhance human society as individual inhabitants´ resistance by protecting them against climate change risks through early warning, communication, education and public awareness/environmental education, etc.